Among many sport games initiated by the man one of reputable type probing man’s courage is polo. Horse polo, an ancient game demonstrating a horseman’s skills was guesstimated on its origination from Persia. This assumption with a poor argument still exists today as a guess. Probably it is originated from a nation with good ability to use horse in riding and more developed culture in horse breeding like Mongolians who play very specific role in nomads culture. This nation is very popular in the world for thousands of years as riders of horses starting from early childhood like five years old up to the very old ages. Lands where Mongolians lived is well known of rock drawings with using horses as transport when dating, travelling, hunting, as well as fighting. All these are examples of the historical and traditional evidences connected with horse culture in Mongolia.
Many researchers try to prove the fact of establishment of Persia by uniting some groups of Midi and Skiff origin in VIII-VII century B.C. Persia is well known with their brave warriors on horseback. Majority of warriors were of skiffs, skilful in horse riding and firing an arrow as well as in their intelligence. All these skills were taught to warriors. Sartuuls in Zavkhan aimag explain the word “Persia” as follows: In my childhood there was a very old chess , may be round 200 years old, of about XVII century. Mongolian chess has figures of animals and that’s why the Queen is named as guepard or “bers” in Mongolian. Later I understood that it is originated from French word quepard. To show the speed of an action Mongolians add “s” at the end of the word. For instance: there are sayings like “tsakhilgaan gyals- ayang tas” which means the speed of thunder, or “selem gayls-tolgoi bundgus “ which means a speed of a sword or “tarkhi manas” meaning the speed of stroke, “uhas geed bariv” meaning the speed of catch etc. On the other hand a mile in Mongolian language is ‘beer’ and ending the word with “s” means the ability to cover a mile with a high speed or extraordinary speedy. So Sartuuls of Zavkhan aimag use /“Acinonyx jubatus” / the leopard “bers” meaning his speedy move from ancient times up to date. Mongolains name lion as “arslan’ taking its root “arsaldagch” meaning rebellion and adding at the end of the word “lan” meaning respect. Mongolian words ‘bars” meaning tiger, “irves” meaning leopard, “shiluus” meaning wild cat and many others express the speedy action or movement of these animals. Mongolian chess is different in playing methods and culmination then others. For instance bers or Queen’s move not in angles as bishops or temee /Camel/ but in steps like pawns move. Movement of “bers” or Queen similar to guepards is like slow sliding and sudden jump. One of the famous games originated from Mongolia is Mongolian chess with the clear expression of specific animal names and their habits. It is a true measure of man’s intellectual capability which goes back to Hunnu tribe period.
The purpose of above mentioned story is to argue that the name Persia is originated from Mongolian word “ Beers”. There are some cases among nations to pronounce the same one letter in different ways. And it is true among Mongolians that letter “b” is pronounced or written as “p” or vice versa. The same is with the word “ Persia”. Skiffs named their country by the name of the most speedy animal symbolizing the power.
The word Skiff may be originated from a Mongolian word “esghii” meaning felt. Skiffs are popular in using felt in the housing, decoration, dressing and so on. Skiffs moved to the West and inhabited near by Kaspii and Black seas. Still up to date herdsmen living round Kavkaz mountain use felt as a dressing /cover/. So, by time passing the letter “e” of esghii /felt/ was lost and the nation name as skiffs is still existing. Researchers based on numerous archeological findings propose that skiffs and “sarmat” /sar/ tribes have the same origin. The word Persia is understood by Mongolian Sartuuls has Mongolian root. Sarmats /Skiffs/ are nomads living in Central and Middle Asia for ages. They are of Mongolian origin spread in Asia, Mediterrian sea and Europe and their descentants are Sartagul or resent Sartuuls.
Sartuuls live in seven soums, and some bags / small divisions/ of Zavhan aimag as well as in seven soums of Bayankhogor aimag, one bag of Zavkhan soum, Uvsu aimag, one bag of Huh morit soum of Gobi-Altai aimag, Chandaman, Tsetseg and Murst soums of Khovd aimag, among Buriats of Dornod, Bulgan, Khentii, Khubsugul, Selenge amiags, Ulaabaatar and other cities of Mongolia. They also live in Russia: Jud aimag of Buryatia, Saha/yakuts/. In China: Inner Mongoila, Shinjaan, Uigur, Gasu. The world history research noted sarts living in Uzekistan, Tadjikstan, sarmats living in Azerbadjan and Osetia as well as in Kirgiz, Kazah, Turkmen, Afganistan, Pakistan sar tribes were found.
This nation named “sart” is originated from Mongolian word “sar” meaning moon. In Turkish it is “sarmat”, Persians “sak”, Geeks ‘skiff. Each nation’s name is according to their pronunciation like sard, sogd, sery, serika, sartaul, sartool, sartac, sartakshin, sarajy, sarybas, sar-uigur. Some facts about similarity of skiffs and Mongols:
1.On a relief decorating the stairs of the complex called “Persepol” illustrating a power of the ancient Persian kings one can see a full figure of a skiff warrior where its proportions, face, nose, eyes and arms representing image of Mongolian man. A hat of skiff warriors with long sharp narrowing up to top and covering neck is still worn in Mongolia. This relief may be one of the important sources to prove that sarmat and Mongols are of the same origin. Researchers findings say that Behistun writings which were carved on the high rock by a Persian king Darii the 1st in VI century B.C. noted participation of stone specialists from the ancient sartuul lands like horezm, sogd, sard, bactri etc. This had an impact to the true description of skiff warriors image, clothes, weapon and decorations.
2. In V century B.C. a Greece famous historian travelling in the lands of Persians and skiffs noted that many historical and paleontological facts left after these nations have similarities with the Mongolian culture. Skiffs used to make cups from man’s skull covering inside with the gold so that it would remind them their enemies or respected ones. In Mongolia up to the people’s revolution of 1921 were using cups made from man’s skulls.
3.In Persia from very ancient times a fire named zoroastra was worshiped among skiffs. It had a great impact on the foundation and development of this nation. This word’s meaning in Mongolian is holy, the best. One of the ancient sart groups iran ari have had great influence on development of zoroastrism. From ancient time women are in charge of a fire keeping it all the time. A young wife must make a fire and it was not allowed to anyone to offend a women sitting near by the fire . It was considered that fire purifies from bad things. A custom of purifying by the fire still exists in Mongolia. For instance two fires are put near the entrance of the fence and people who came from the funeral go between these two fires purifying themselves. Mongolians still worship the fire making offering of meal they cook during fiests or any kind of celebration to the fire.
4. Examples of the fine arts classic antiquities named after Skiff’s is found in the northern part of Black sea, Caucuses, , central and mid Asian countries, especially in the places were ancient Mongolian races used to live like Zuungar, Oirod Mongol, Buryat Mongol, Inner Mongolia. Similarity of findings like rock painting, deer monuments, grave stones proves that the origin of skiffs, sarmats and mongols is the same.
5. Felt clothes found in an ancient Kinda grave in Bayankhongor aimag is one of the important facts telling that Mongolians like skiffs widely used felt in their life. Until early 1950th old people in Songino soums, Zavkhan aimag used to wear felt dress named burkh which is made of thicker felt than those made in X-XII centry A.C. by the Mongolian kidans. However, today the young generation do not wear this cloth as they find it too old fashioned.
6. Similar to the funeral tradition of Altai , Syayn and Khangai mountain ranges where mainly pazyryk and sarmat lived, sartuuls have a tradition to bury dead corps in position of laying on one side, so that face looked to the sun rise or sun set direction with half stretched legs, upper leg a little bit straighter and upper arm put on the side. This tradition still exists in rural areas in Mongolia up to day.
7. Researcher find that sarmat descendants like alan, hazar, avar, mogul, mongor and many others are of mongol origin. Although they lived separately for a long time and have different religions there are many words with the Mongolian root exist in their languages.
8. It is interesting fact that names of tribes ahsartagt, borat, alagat which are under influence of many tribes of nart are directly understood by Mongolians. This was found by the researches of Osetin stories of ancient sarmat of Caucuses. “Khatiags” who might be “khets” may be connected to the Mongolian “khatgins”. Some researchers state that the word nart from Iranian word “nar” meaning a man. Osetin and Caucus and some other nations adding “t” and “d” at the end of the word makes plural like in Mongolian language. In nard tales there are many words which may be Mongoilain or understood in Mongolian directly. In one of the tales a man from nart aimag named his sons Ahsar and Ahsartag. The root of these names is “ah” which is brother in Mongolian. In XIII-XIV century A.C. lived two princes of Chinghis haan’s family line whose names were Sartag and Sartagtai. And today among Mongolian sartuuls people with name Sartag live in Mongolia.
A book about narts printed in Russian in Moscow in 1978 one can find many word understood directly or by meaning in Mongolian. So, this cannot be explained only with the connection to the conquering of XIII-XIV century. The story tells that Osetin people like Mongolians were engaged in horse racing, wrestling and archery named three kinds man’s sport as well as in festivals with lyrical songs and folk dances from ancient times. From the facts that ancient tribes still exist among Alanod nard nation comes from Mongolian words “sar’ and “ nar’. It is supposed that sarmats and their descendants named the European Skiffs which played an important role in the existence of Persia, one of the powerful states for centuries. However, research works on their connection with Mongols is very poor due to lack of understanding of Mongolian language among researchers. And Mongolian researchers were not active in comparative research. This resulted in wrong approach in the survey.
9. Based on historical sources, archeological findings, memorials and other historical reminiscences it in concluded that skiffs with felt ger, engaged in hunting, cattle husbandry, with their excellence in archery horse riding and warfare is very similar to Mongolians way of life.
In order to give some understandings about connection of origin of Mongolians and sarmats the following may be mentioned. G.I Ramsedt, an American researcher of Finish origin and Russian academician A.P.Okladnikove who are well known for their scientific research in the history and paleontology of Central Asian nations, noted in their works that Mongolian sartuuls still keeping the root name of ancient sar, sart and sartaul are successors of the sogd sarmats.
Some researchers suggest that Mongolian sartuuls are those Turkish art workers brought in XIII century when Chinghis khan has conquered Horezm in Mid Asia who eventually were mongolized. Reasoning is that recent Uzbeks, tadjiks /tochog/ and Kirgiz /sar-uigur/ live in the lands where sarts very powerful with intellectual and cultural development for thousands of years. That’s why it is proposed that the word sart is Turkish and the name ‘Sart” is uzbek. It is true also that at the end of XIX century round one million sart lived/ registered in uzbek. In spite of this fact an evidence of not understanding the root meaning of sar and sart by Uzbeks and other Turkish tribes proves that these words of Mongolian origin. This is said to draw the researchers attention to this issue.
The works of Ts. Damdinsuren, a Mongolia academician, hsitorican, who interpreted “Secret History of Mongolia” into Cyrillic, gave many examples proving that sartuuls lived in Mongolia before the foundation of the Mongolian State by Temuujin whom a title of Chingis khan was awarded. Some of them are: in verse 128 it is said .. Chingis met a sartaul man named Hasan who on a back of white camel brought his sheep to Baljuun lake for watering… following the sartaul sheep of Togtoa bekhi. It means that Mongolian in ancient times had sheep named after sartaul and today in Zavkhan aimag sartaul sheep are raised as an essential part of selected sartuul sheep reproduction research and scientific works. Above two verses shows that in XIII century Mergits who lived in the central part along Selenge river had sartaul sheep popular with their big tales. And sartuuls living in the eastern part of Mongolia, along Barguujin and Barge lands of the north eastern part of Inner Mongolia keep the tradition and culture of sartuul origin named as their ancestors.
Some words of the Secret History of Mongolia are not understood by Mongolians while sartuuls use them in their daily life. This proves that sartuuls speaking and understanding the Mongolian folk language are originated from Mongolia.
Statement of some researchers who suppose that sarmats lived in ancient Central Asia are skiffs, who came as conquerors and some think that they are Greeks, and skiffs have spread the outstanding arts in this region cannot be complete.
H.Tsoohuu, a Mongolian D-r of Sciences in his survey of canals connected with name of Sartagt in Central Asia of different periods. Among the one 175 m length canal located in Altai mountain ranges in Erdeneburen soums of Khoved aimag, Mongolia was found was of VII century or of year of 625-635. Most people think that canals connected to Sartagtai belongs to Chinghis khann’s or Galdan boshigt’s period. However, V.P. Chichkov, the Russian scientist, proves that the eastern part of canals were 1380 years and western part were 1080 years old.
A memorial devoted to the wife of legendary Sartakbbai of 3 b height named Hurtuyah interpreted by sartuuls of Zavkhan aimag spoken language as memorial to wife’s younger sister / sister-in-law/ . The explanation of this fact is that sartuuls call their wife’s younger sister not depending on their age as “hurdu”. For instance: Temuujin’s younger brothers Hasar, Belguutei, Temulun and all other relatives younger that Chingis’s wifes Hulan, Esui, Esugen called their sisters-in law “hurduu”. But Chingis’ wife Esugen was his beloved wife as well as hurduu as she is younger sister of his wife Esui. Thus above mentioned memorial is devoted to his beloved wife and his wife’s younger sister /hurduu/ and exists for five thousand years as a historical reminder. But Russian writing Hurtuyah is read in Mongolian as Hurdu-yah because of Russian and Mongolian writing of the letter “U’ is different plus in Russian as well as in many other languages of Turkish root letters “d” and “t” are interchangeable. “Yah” means in Mongolian /authentic/ “yag” and also used in Mongolain names. The evidence of living a princess with name Yakshi-bii in one of the generations of Zuchi proves this fact. The memorial is very artistic showing the inner world and outer appearance of a young lady impressed people and they called it authentic /yag/ or real image. This memorial devoted to a specific person can prove that five thousand years ago a powerful nation with a well developed culture named sart lived in Mongolia. Another evidence saying that sart lived in Mongolia is that the word “ ai” expresses a wonder, in Turkish means the moon, in Mongolian means unlimited space, in society great quantity in personal sense greatness, leader, king. For instance leader of Borjgin family is Borjigdai, khory family is Hkrilardai, of barga family is Bargudai. From this point we can suggest that Sartagbai means the leader of sartuul family. And the memorial to the young beautiful woman “Hurtuyah” with a hidden smile can be compared to Leonardo de Vinchi’s well known work expressing Jokonda’s smile.
Only a man with the authority and power in the country where culture and arts developed to the particular level could make people to create such a beauty. So it may be concluded that the first state was founded and developed in Central Asia. So, those who noted as “sumers” in the the world history, moved all over the world as god’s messengers to spread the cultural development were settled in the lands of Tigris and Euphrates rivers where they were engaged in agriculture, building settlements, initiating writings and so on. Connection of sumers with Mongoians may be explained as follows. Something which is seen not clearly or seen far away with no clear forms is said in Mnogolian as ‘suumger”. In Russian it might be borrowed from Mongolian language it is said sumerechno and at evenings when getting dark it is said sumerky. One of the piks of Altai mountainrange located in the center of Mongolian Zuungar tribe is hardly seen and that’s why it s called Suumer /4505 m high/. In Russian language it is called Shuumer and written as Shumer. Mongolians follow Russian pronunciation and eventually they do not think of its origin and meaning. The word meaning is something which is far away or might have meaning of our prehistoric relatives. Researchers describe a “sumer” man as round faced, with no beard, big nose and rather short which makes him different from others near by him. This is similar to description of Mongols of XIII century. This proves that modern Mongolians are of the same origin with those who lived in the year of about 2700 B.C in Ur of Sumer. There many cases when researchers stated of the same originality of summers, skiffs, kimmers and midis.
Due to climate changes in Western Asia and Europe and escaping of wars and fights, people moved from central Asia and settled down in other lands. As well as many warriors were sent by the Governors decree to other countries where they settled with their families. For instance Hunnu king Atalia left his country in about the year of 330 to conquer many countries in Asia and Europe where he passed away . His seeds are left today as hardly noticed blue spots. In XIII century Bat khan was sent to Europe by Uguudei khan’s Decree and founded the powerful Altan Ord and today his descentants are not noticed among Russians an Ukranians. Also the Great khan Munkhu sent his younger brother Hulugu to the West to conquer the lands of ancient sumer, beers /Persia/ and he founded a powerful State Il- empire where his seeds were ruling for about 100 years. These people with big beard have no blue spot but still are very courageous. Similarly, summers might be sent here by someone’s decree about 5000 years ago and their names were left their forever.
There are several evidences that prove the Mongolian origination of horse polo.
1. Horse racing with 6-13 years old riders, horseback competitions like shooting the rope holding a ball hanged down from a tall pole, chasing the ball on horseback, shooting balloons made from cattle stomach or bladders, struggling for a bag made of camel skin and filled with airag or wine, catching a round ball made from cattle bone thrown in front of a horse rider and so on.
2. A bowl for milking can with rounded shape made by cane is called polu by Zavkhan sartuuls. A man named Poolu lived in Songino soum in XIX-XX century and his descendants still live there. Mongolian word “buluu” means round shaped bone and polo might come from this word. Buluu is a round shaped bone which is located in the hole of and connects the leg with the body. May be this bone is likened to a ball. In ancient Mongolia this kind of bone of about 3 inch diameter was shaped as a ball was used in competitions. Horse riders used to grasp this ball from a horseback. This is developed to a team game. So, poolu came from Mongolian word buluu. It is interesting that the size of the ball did not changed much reaching 3,45 inch today. This sport game play considerable role in body building and movement skills development of soldiers.
3. Mongolians not only initiated and developed horse polo but also cheered it with drawings. These are: drawing on a wall of grave remained from Kidan tribe of X-XII century in Aohan hoshu of Ulaanhad aimag in Inner Mongolia, drawings of XIII century Uani empire, drawing on a silk of Manju chin empire of XVII century all illustrating royals playing horse polo. This fact shows that this game was widely spread among royals in Mongolia. Recently the Mongolian traditional polo came back and camel polo is introduced proving that Mongolia is a country of polo.
Just like as they named a round shaped knitted with cane can polu, Sartuuls named a sport game playing with round bone polo.